Engine

Keyframe

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A Keyframe holds the Poses applied to joints in a Model at a given point of time in an animation. Keyframes are interpolated between during animation playback.

Note, in most cases developers do not need to manipulate KeyframeSequences as the animation editor covers most animation functionality. However, in some cases a developer may wish to generate an animation from a Script or build their own plugin.

Structure

Keyframes are held within a KeyframeSequence and contain Pose objects. The poses are named in accordance with the BaseParts they correspond to and are structured in terms of joint hierarchy. This means each Pose is parented to the Pose corresponding to the part it is attached to. See below for a visual example.

Note, as Poses are named in accordance with the BaseParts they correspond to, animations require distinct part names to play correctly.

Interpolation

During animation playback the poses in different keyframes are interpolated between. This allows a smooth animation to be created without needing to define every frame. Note, the style of interpolation is determined in the Pose object. The Keyframe object merely holds the Poses at a defined point of time in the animation (Keyframe.Time).

Code Samples

Keyframe Generate Poses

local function generateKeyframe(model)
if not model.PrimaryPart then
warn("No primary part set")
return
end
local rootPart = model.PrimaryPart:GetRootPart()
if not rootPart then
warn("Root part not found")
return
end
local partsAdded = {}
partsAdded[rootPart] = true
local function addPoses(part, parentPose)
-- get all of the joints attached to the part
for _, joint in pairs(part:GetJoints()) do
-- we're only interested in Motor6Ds
if joint:IsA("Motor6D") then
-- find the connected part
local connectedPart = nil
if joint.Part0 == part then
connectedPart = joint.Part1
elseif joint.Part1 == part then
connectedPart = joint.Part0
end
if connectedPart then
-- make sure we haven't already added this part
if not partsAdded[connectedPart] then
partsAdded[connectedPart] = true
-- create a pose
local pose = Instance.new("Pose")
pose.Name = connectedPart.Name
parentPose:AddSubPose(pose)
-- recurse
addPoses(connectedPart, pose)
end
end
end
end
end
local keyframe = Instance.new("Keyframe")
-- populate the keyframe
local rootPose = Instance.new("Pose")
rootPose.Name = rootPart.Name
addPoses(rootPart, rootPose)
keyframe:AddPose(rootPose)
return keyframe
end
local character = script.Parent
local keyframe = generateKeyframe(character)
print(keyframe)

Summary

Properties

  • read parallel

    The Keyframe time position (in seconds) in an animation. This determines the time at which the Poses inside the keyframe will be shown.

Methods

Properties

Time

read parallel

This property gives the Keyframe time position (in seconds) in an animation. This determines the time at which the Poses inside the keyframe will be shown.

Note the Keyframe with the highest time value in a KeyframeSequence is used to determine the length of the animation.

Code Samples

Get KeyframeSequence Length

local function getSequenceLength(keyframeSequence)
local length = 0
for _, keyframe in pairs(keyframeSequence:GetKeyframes()) do
if keyframe.Time > length then
length = keyframe.Time
end
end
return length
end
local keyframeSequence = Instance.new("KeyframeSequence")
getSequenceLength(keyframeSequence)

Methods

AddMarker

void

This function adds a KeyframeMarker to the Keyframe by parenting it to the keyframe. It is functionally identical to setting the marker's Instance.Parent to the Keyframe.

Note, this function will not error when an instance other than a KeyframeMarker is given as the parameter and will parent it successfully.

More about Keyframes

Keyframe names do not need to be unique. For example, if an Animation has three keyframes named "Particles" the connected event returned by AnimationTrack:GetMarkerReachedSignal() will fire each time one of these keyframes is reached.

Keyframe names can be set in the Roblox Animation Editor when creating or editing an animation. They cannot however be set by a Script on an existing animation prior to playing it.

See also:

Parameters

marker: Instance

The KeyframeMarker being parented to the Keyframe.


Returns

void

Code Samples

Add Marker/Remove Marker

local keyframe = Instance.new("Keyframe")
keyframe.Parent = workspace
local marker = Instance.new("KeyframeMarker")
marker.Name = "FootStep"
marker.Value = 100
keyframe:AddMarker(marker) --marker.Parent = keyframe
task.wait(2)
keyframe:RemoveMarker(marker) --marker.Parent = nil

AddPose

void

This function adds a Pose to the Keyframe by parenting it to the keyframe. It is functionally identical to setting the pose's Instance.Parent to the keyframe.

Note, this function will not error when an instance other than a Pose is given as the pose parameter and will parent it successfully.

Parameters

pose: Instance

The Pose to be added.


Returns

void

Code Samples

Keyframe Generate Poses

local function generateKeyframe(model)
if not model.PrimaryPart then
warn("No primary part set")
return
end
local rootPart = model.PrimaryPart:GetRootPart()
if not rootPart then
warn("Root part not found")
return
end
local partsAdded = {}
partsAdded[rootPart] = true
local function addPoses(part, parentPose)
-- get all of the joints attached to the part
for _, joint in pairs(part:GetJoints()) do
-- we're only interested in Motor6Ds
if joint:IsA("Motor6D") then
-- find the connected part
local connectedPart = nil
if joint.Part0 == part then
connectedPart = joint.Part1
elseif joint.Part1 == part then
connectedPart = joint.Part0
end
if connectedPart then
-- make sure we haven't already added this part
if not partsAdded[connectedPart] then
partsAdded[connectedPart] = true
-- create a pose
local pose = Instance.new("Pose")
pose.Name = connectedPart.Name
parentPose:AddSubPose(pose)
-- recurse
addPoses(connectedPart, pose)
end
end
end
end
end
local keyframe = Instance.new("Keyframe")
-- populate the keyframe
local rootPose = Instance.new("Pose")
rootPose.Name = rootPart.Name
addPoses(rootPart, rootPose)
keyframe:AddPose(rootPose)
return keyframe
end
local character = script.Parent
local keyframe = generateKeyframe(character)
print(keyframe)
Keyframe Add/Remove Pose

local keyframe = Instance.new("Keyframe")
keyframe.Parent = workspace
local pose = Instance.new("Pose")
pose.EasingStyle = Enum.PoseEasingStyle.Cubic
pose.EasingDirection = Enum.PoseEasingDirection.Out
local pose2 = Instance.new("Pose")
pose2.EasingStyle = Enum.PoseEasingStyle.Cubic
pose2.EasingDirection = Enum.PoseEasingDirection.Out
keyframe:AddPose(pose) -- pose.Parent = keyframe
task.wait(2)
keyframe:RemovePose(pose) -- pose.Parent = nil
task.wait(2)
keyframe:AddPose(pose) -- pose.Parent = keyframe
task.wait(2)
pose:AddSubPose(pose2) -- pose2.Parent = pose
task.wait(2)
pose:RemoveSubPose(pose2) -- pose2.Parent = nil

GetMarkers

This function returns an array containing all KeyframeMarkers that have been added to the Keyframe. Note, this function will only return instances of type KeyframeMarker.

More about Keyframes

Keyframe names do not need to be unique. For example, if an Animation has three keyframes named "Particles" the connected event returned by AnimationTrack:GetMarkerReachedSignal() will fire each time one of these keyframes is reached.

Keyframe names can be set in the Roblox Animation Editor when creating or editing an animation. They cannot however be set by a Script on an existing animation prior to playing it.

See also:


Returns

An array containing all KeyframeMarkers that have been added to the Keyframe.

Code Samples

Get Keyframe Markers Attached to a Keyframe

local keyframe = Instance.new("Keyframe")
keyframe.Parent = workspace
local marker1 = Instance.new("KeyframeMarker")
marker1.Name = "FootStep"
marker1.Value = 100
local marker2 = Instance.new("KeyframeMarker")
marker2.Name = "Wave"
marker2.Value = 100
keyframe:AddMarker(marker1) --marker.Parent = keyframe
keyframe:AddMarker(marker2) --marker.Parent = keyframe
local markers = keyframe:GetMarkers()
for _, marker in pairs(markers) do
print(marker.Name)
end

GetPoses

This function returns an array containing all Poses that have been added to a Keyframe.


Returns

An array of Poses.

Code Samples

Keyframe Reset Poses

local function resetPoses(parent)
-- both functions are equivalent to GetChildren
local poses = parent:IsA("Keyframe") and parent:GetPoses() or parent:IsA("Pose") and parent:GetSubPoses()
for _, pose in pairs(poses) do
if pose:IsA("Pose") then
pose.CFrame = CFrame.new()
-- recurse
resetPoses(pose)
end
end
end

RemoveMarker

void

This function removes a KeyframeMarker from the Keyframe by settings its Instance.Parent to nil.

The KeyframeMarker's Instance.Parent is set to nil but it is not destroyed. This means, provided the marker is referenced it can be re-parented later.

Note, this function will not error when an instance other than a KeyframeMarker is given as the parameter.

More about Keyframes

Keyframe names do not need to be unique. For example, if an Animation has three keyframes named "Particles" the connected event returned by AnimationTrack:GetMarkerReachedSignal() will fire each time one of these keyframes is reached.

Keyframe names can be set in the Roblox Animation Editor when creating or editing an animation. They cannot however be set by a Script on an existing animation prior to playing it.

See also:

Parameters

marker: Instance

The marker being removed from the Keyframe.


Returns

void

Code Samples

Add Marker/Remove Marker

local keyframe = Instance.new("Keyframe")
keyframe.Parent = workspace
local marker = Instance.new("KeyframeMarker")
marker.Name = "FootStep"
marker.Value = 100
keyframe:AddMarker(marker) --marker.Parent = keyframe
task.wait(2)
keyframe:RemoveMarker(marker) --marker.Parent = nil

RemovePose

void

This function removes a Pose from the Keyframe by setting its Instance.Parent to nil without destroying it. This means the provided the pose is referenced and it can be re-parented later.

Note, this function will not error when an instance other than a Pose is given as the pose parameter.

Parameters

pose: Instance

The Pose to be removed.


Returns

void

Code Samples

Keyframe Add/Remove Pose

local keyframe = Instance.new("Keyframe")
keyframe.Parent = workspace
local pose = Instance.new("Pose")
pose.EasingStyle = Enum.PoseEasingStyle.Cubic
pose.EasingDirection = Enum.PoseEasingDirection.Out
local pose2 = Instance.new("Pose")
pose2.EasingStyle = Enum.PoseEasingStyle.Cubic
pose2.EasingDirection = Enum.PoseEasingDirection.Out
keyframe:AddPose(pose) -- pose.Parent = keyframe
task.wait(2)
keyframe:RemovePose(pose) -- pose.Parent = nil
task.wait(2)
keyframe:AddPose(pose) -- pose.Parent = keyframe
task.wait(2)
pose:AddSubPose(pose2) -- pose2.Parent = pose
task.wait(2)
pose:RemoveSubPose(pose2) -- pose2.Parent = nil

Events