Scripts

Script objects are pieces of Luau code that can modify object behaviors and implement the overall logic of your experience. They can run on the client or server, depending on the functionality you're building. For example, a script that detects and acts on user input must run on the client, and a script that validates an in-experience consumable must run on the server.

Both server-side and client-side scripts can require ModuleScript objects, which are reusable modules for organizing and sharing code.

There are two things to consider when writing scripts:

Scripts have a Script.RunContext property that sets whether the script runs on the client or server. There are three types of run context:

  • Legacy - lets the script run based on its parent container. Legacy is the default run context.
  • Server - lets the script run only on the server, regardless of its parent container.
  • Client - lets the script run only on the client, regardless of its parent container.

Scripts need to reside in script containers in the data model. Based on the run context, you need to place the script in the right container. For more information, see the server, client, and replication sections of the data model documentation.

Module Scripts

ModuleScript objects are reusable modules that script objects load by calling the require() function. Module scripts must return exactly one value and run once and only once per Lua environment. As a result, subsequent calls to require() return a cached value. You can execute arbitrary code in a ModuleScript, but you only need to return what you need in other scripts.

Multiple scripts can require the same module script, and one module script can be required by both server-side scripts and client-side local scripts.

Structure

Each ModuleScript starts with the following code:


local module = {}
return module
  • local module = {} creates an empty table.
  • return module returns the table and its members to any script that imports the ModuleScript.

The following example module script returns a getPickupBonus function in the PickupManager table:

Example Module Script

-- ModuleScript in ReplicatedStorage
local PickupManager = {}
local defaultMultiplier = 1.25
local rarityMultipliers = {
common = 10,
uncommon = 20,
rare = 50,
legendary = 100
}
-- Add the getPickupBonus function to the PickupManager module table
function PickupManager.getPickupBonus(rarity)
local bonus = rarityMultipliers[rarity] * defaultMultiplier
return bonus
end
return PickupManager

To call the PickupManager.getPickupBonus function:


-- Script in ReplicatedStorage
local ReplicatedStorage = game:GetService("ReplicatedStorage")
-- Get value returned by ModuleScript
local PickupManager = require(ReplicatedStorage:WaitForChild("PickupManager"))
-- Call a ModuleScript function
local bonus = PickupManager.getPickupBonus("legendary")
print(bonus) --> 125

Requiring

A ModuleScript runs only when another script imports it using the require() function. If a ModuleScript requires another ModuleScript, a Script or LocalScript must require the first ModuleScript in the chain for any of them to run.

To access a ModuleScript from another script using the require() function:


-- Script in ServerScriptService
local ReplicatedStorage = game:GetService("ReplicatedStorage")
-- Get the return value for the ModuleScript named "PickupManager"
local PickupManager = require(ReplicatedStorage:WaitForChild("PickupManager"))

When you call require() on a ModuleScript, it runs once and returns a single item as a reference. Calling require() again returns the exact same reference, meaning that if you modify a returned table or Instance, subsequent require() calls return that modified reference. The module itself doesn't run multiple times.

If you require() a ModuleScript from both sides of the client-server boundary, then the ModuleScript returns a unique reference for each side.

Patterns

Module scripts have some common patterns that you can use to simplify your code and provide more flexibility over the features Roblox Studio provides. By incorporating these patterns into your development, you can avoid common pitfalls as your Roblox experience grows in size and complexity.

Data Sharing

To associate data with individual objects, you can assign attributes to them or create Configuration folders with value objects such as StringValue or IntValue. However, both approaches are troublesome if you want to add or modify dozens of objects or data values. They also don't store tables or functions.

If you want to modify the same data for multiple copies of the same object or reuse the same data for different objects, store the data in ModuleScripts. It's an easier way for you to reuse the data in other scripts, and you can store tables and functions.

The following example ModuleScript in ReplicatedStorage stores the configuration values for a generic gun:

Weapon Stats

-- ModuleScript in ReplicatedStorage named GunConfig
local GunConfig = {}
GunConfig.MagazineSize = 20
GunConfig.AmmoCount = 100
GunConfig.Firerate = 600
GunConfig.Damage = {
["Head"] = 50;
["Torso"] = 40;
["Body"] = 25;
}
return GunConfig

Custom Events

Custom events enable scripts to communicate with each other, but having to keep track of references to individual BindableEvent objects may clutter your code.

You can use ModuleScripts to store BindableEvents and provide custom event handlers that are directly tied to the methods of ModuleScript.

The following ModuleScript in ReplicatedStorage has a custom event that fires when the switch changes state:

Switch Module

-- ModuleScript in ReplicatedStorage named Switch
local Switch = {}
-- Creating bindable so any script can listen to when the switch was changed
local bindableEvent = Instance.new("BindableEvent")
Switch.Changed = bindableEvent.Event
local state = false
function Switch.flip()
state = not state
bindableEvent:Fire(state)
end
return Switch

The following LocalScript in ReplicatedFirst connects a function to call when the Switch.Changed event fires.


-- LocalScript in ReplicatedFirst
local ReplicatedStorage = game:GetService("ReplicatedStorage")
local Switch = require(ReplicatedStorage:WaitForChild("Switch"))
Switch.Changed:Connect(function(newState)
print("Switch state is now", newState)
end)
-- Test the flipping a few times
task.wait(1)
Switch.flip()
task.wait(1)
Switch.flip()

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the practice of creating a layer of abstraction around objects or scripting logic to hide complexity. You can use ModuleScripts to encapsulate Roblox objects with custom Lua functions to simplify code.

For example, you can use encapsulation to:

  • Simplify cross-network communication with a single RemoteEvent object.
  • Wrap error handling code around sensitive services such as DataStoreService.
  • Define custom methods to control or extend Roblox object features.

It's difficult to keep track of dozens of individual RemoteEvent objects to implement networking in your game. You can use a ModuleScript to encapsulate a single RemoteEvent to help simplify this problem. By including a unique id argument, you can still send different network messages while only using a single RemoteEvent.

In the example below, the ModuleScript named NetworkManagerClient encapsulates the RemoteEvent:FireServer() method to include this extra id argument. Additionally, this ModuleScript references the RemoteEvent object itself so you don't have to reference it in other parts of your code. You only need to require this ModuleScript to send network messages and don't need to deal with RemoteEvent objects in the rest of your codebase.

The following ModuleScript in ReplicatedFirst provides an encapsulated function that you can call on your client scripts to send a network message:

Network Module

-- ModuleScript in ReplicatedFirst named NetworkManagerClient
local NetworkManagerClient = {}
local ReplicatedStorage = game:GetService("ReplicatedStorage")
local remoteEvent = ReplicatedStorage:WaitForChild("RemoteEvent")
-- Encapsulating the remote object's FireServer function
function NetworkManagerClient.FireServer(id, ...)
remoteEvent:FireServer(id, ...)
end
return NetworkManagerClient

The following ModuleScript in ServerScriptService uses BindableEvents for every script to connect to a specific id. When a client sends a network message, each BindableEvent associated with the specified id fires.


-- ModuleScript in ServerScriptService named NetworkManagerServer
local NetworkManagerServer = {}
local networkSignalList = {}
function NetworkManagerServer.GetServerEventSignal(id)
local bindableEvent = Instance.new("BindableEvent")
-- Linking the new BindableEvent to the id
table.insert(networkSignalList, {
id = id,
bindableEvent = bindableEvent,
})
return bindableEvent.Event
end
-- Connecting to
local ReplicatedStorage = game:GetService("ReplicatedStorage")
local remoteEvent = ReplicatedStorage:WaitForChild("RemoteEvent")
remoteEvent.OnServerEvent:Connect(function(player, id, ...)
-- Finding every bindable event that matches the id of the received remote event
for _, signal in networkSignalList do
if signal.id == id then
signal.bindableEvent:Fire(player, ...)
end
end
end)
return NetworkManagerServer

The following LocalScript sends a message with the id "RequestA" with an optional "Hello" argument.


-- LocalScript in ReplicatedFirst
local ReplicatedFirst = game:GetService("ReplicatedFirst")
local NetworkManagerClient = require(ReplicatedFirst:WaitForChild("NetworkManagerClient"))
NetworkManagerClient.FireServer("RequestA", "Hello")

The following Script connects to the network message id "RequestA" and prints out a statement with any additional parameters when it receives the request.


-- Script in ServerScriptService
local ServerScriptService = game:GetService("ServerScriptService")
local NetworkManagerServer = require(ServerScriptService:WaitForChild("NetworkManagerServer"))
NetworkManagerServer.GetServerEventSignal("RequestA"):Connect(function(player, ...)
print("Received RequestA from", player, ...)
end)

Creating Scripts

To create script objects in the Studio Explorer window:

  1. Hover over the parent container into which you want to insert a script.
  2. Click the button that appears to the right of the container to open the Insert Object menu.
  3. Select the type of script you want to insert.
  4. Rename the script.