Texture Specifications

A texture is a digital image applied to the surface of a 3D object to simulate and enhance its visual appearance. Roblox supports various texture types that you import with a custom 3D object, or upload directly as individual image files. For details on implementing basic textures, see Textures and Decals.

Roblox also supports Physically Based Rendering (PBR) textures which override a mesh's existing TextureID and can be used to create immersive environments and objects.

See the following requirements when creating your own basic and advanced textures:

  • File Formats — File formats for textures that are uploaded separately in Studio must be submitted as a .png, .jpg, .tga, or .bmp.

  • Resolution — Roblox supports up to 1024×1024 pixel texture resolutions. To optimize for performance, you may consider using smaller resolutions. Use the following general guidance:

    • For smaller 5×5 stud objects, use 256×256 texture resolutions.
    • For medium 10×10 stud objects, use 512×512 texture resolutions.
    • For larger 20×20 stud objects, use 1024×1024 texture resolutions.
    • See PBR Texture Budgets for similar guidances with PBR texture maps.
  • Single Material - Mesh objects can only have one material assigned.


You can add a Surface Appearance to your mesh in Studio to add PBR texture options. The SurfaceAppearance instance uses UV mapping, a form of texture mapping, to accurately map up to four 2D images onto the mesh object.

See the following requirements for SurfaceAppearance assets:

  • Texture files — Ensuring your textures follow consistent conventions optimizes assets for tools like the 3D Importer and helps with organization. When possible, texture files should include the appropriate name affix and follow the appropriate image details:

    Texture TypeTexture Schema SuffixTexture Image Details
    Albedo_ALBRGB (24-bit)
    Metalness_METSingle Channel Grayscale (8-bit)
    Normal_NORRGB (24-bit) - Roblox only supports OpenGL format - Tangent Space normal maps.
    Roughness_RGHSingle Channel Grayscale (8-bit)
  • PBR Texture Budget — Use an appropriate texture map size based on the asset you are texturing to optimize for visual quality and performance. As a general guideline, each asset should have a texture resolution of 256×256 for every 2×2×2 unit space the asset occupies. If larger than a 2×2×2 cube, use the next highest resolution. The following are some baseline texture sizing examples:

    Recommended Map SizeApproximate Asset Size (Unit Cube)Example Assets
    64×64 - 128×1281×1×1Jewelry, sunglasses, eyebrows, mustaches.
    256×2562×2×2Hair, shoes, tank tops, t-shirts, shorts, short skirts.
    512×5124×4×4Jackets, pants, overalls, long-sleeve shirts, long skirts.
    1024×1024 (maximum)8×8×8Full body clothing (onesies, robes), humanoid characters.

UV Mapping

All textures use UV mapping, a 3D modeling process to project a 3D model's surface to a 2D image, or UV atlas. See the following requirements for UV mapping, especially if you're manually editing or optimizing your UV atlas:

  • Single UV Set — Use a single UV set for each component, such as a humanoid or accessory. Studio doesn't allow for multiple UV sets.
  • Coordinates — All UVs must be created within a 0:1 space.
  • Overlaps — Overlapping UVs are allowed.
  • Maximum Texture Resolution — Roblox supports up to 1024×1024 pixel spaces for texture maps. See Optimizations for more details on efficiently texturing your assets.


Studio's UV compositor allows you to pack and size your UVs to best suit your needs because it can detect and repackage UVs for performance and storage efficiency. The compositor looks to each component of the model, such as a character (arms, legs, torso, head), and repackages and loads the UVs as needed when in-experience changes occur, such as swapping body parts.

Especially with character models and other advanced models, optimizing your UV layouts can help prevent texture issues, save loading time, and improve performance. Keep in mind the following best practices for optimizing your UV islands for Roblox's UV compositor:

  • Pixel space — Studio's texture compositor repacks UVs by breaking up the following pixel spaces:

    • 1024×1024 pixel space into 64×64 16 pixel blocks.
    • 512×512 pixel space into 32×32 16 pixel blocks.
    • 256×256 pixel space into 16×16 16 pixel blocks.
    1024×1024 UV example
    512×512 UV example
    256×256 UV example
  • Avoid Sharing 16 Pixel Blocks — To maximize your UV space and the resolution of your model, keep all UV islands within these 16 pixel blocks when possible, and do not let two UV islands share the same 16 pixel block.

  • Use Smaller Islands — When possible, use smaller islands to simplify layout and packing. This can help prevent a UV island for one body part incorrectly applying to another as the compositor can't differentiate the islands.

By optimizing your UV layouts, you can prevent unexpected texture conflicts, save space, and improve performance. The following is an example of how Studio's compositor can process the same character body UV layouts with and without optimizations: