Materials

Roblox's materials are unlike materials on other platforms, in that their visual appearance and their physical properties reflect those of materials in the real world. For example, concrete is heavier than plastic and sinks faster in water. When you set the material of a part or terrain, Roblox simulates its physical material properties to make this behavior just work.

The Roblox engine offers a range of base materials suitable to build many experiences, including various categories of metal, rock, and organic materials.

You can also create your own custom materials and apply them to parts or terrain. Custom materials have an additional adaptive materials behavior that lets you adapt any model to use your art style and custom materials, even if someone else created the model.

Applying Materials

You can quickly apply materials to parts through the Material widget. The Material Manager offers the same functionality and an additional "paint tool" application mode.

Material Widget

The Material widget is accessible from either the Home or Model tabs.

Studio's Model tab with the Material button highlighted.

Clicking the small dropdown arrow reveals a material picker and, by default, applies the chosen material to all selected parts. Once you've selected a material, you can quickly apply it to other parts by selecting those parts and clicking the Material button itself.

Studio's Model tab with the Material button's components highlighted.

Material Manager

If you've enabled the Material Picker beta, access the Material Manager from the picker window. If you have not enabled the beta, locate its dedicated button to the left of the Color button in the Home or Model tab.

Studio's Model tab with the Material Manager button highlighted.

From the manager window, you can apply materials to parts through the following workflows.

The default Enum.Material property for new Part instances is Plastic. To apply a different material to parts:

  1. In the 3D viewport or Explorer, select one or more parts.

  2. In the Material Manager palette, hover your mouse over the desired material (you don't need to select it) and click the Apply to Selected Parts button.

    Apply to Selected Parts button indicated in Material Manager

Custom Materials

The Material Manager provides a user interface to interact with various aspects of MaterialService, including creating new custom materials and applying them to parts and terrain. Custom materials are represented by MaterialVariant instances within MaterialService.

Explorer window showing two MaterialVariant instances within MaterialService

You can apply custom materials per-part or globally to both parts and terrain, and you can fine-tune how custom materials apply to faces of terrain with TerrainDetail instances.

Creating Custom Materials

You can edit all properties of a custom material in the Material Manager or through the properties of a MaterialVariant instance. You can also generate custom materials through the prompt‑based Material Generator.

To create a custom material in the Material Manager:

  1. Click the base material from which your custom material will inherit physical properties. If you skip this step, the base material will be Plastic, but you can change it later.

    Base material selected in Material Manager
  2. In the top-left corner, click Create Material Variant.

    Create Material Variant button indicated in Material Manager

    A new variant appears in the palette with an icon in the bottom-right corner, indicating it's a custom material.

    New MaterialVariant tile in Material Manager with icon to indicate a custom material
  3. In the inspector, rename your custom material to describe its purpose. You can change the name later, but if you do so after applying the material to parts, you'll need to re-apply it to those parts.

  4. For each texture map option such as Color or Normal, paste an asset ID or import a new texture from your computer. Square textures work best. If you don't specify an asset for a texture map, that texture remains blank.

  5. If desired, adjust the Studs Per Tile and Pattern values to change how the material looks.

Applying Custom Materials

For parts, you can use a custom material just like any other material, applying it to selected parts through the Material widget or the Material Manager

You can also apply the new material to a part by setting its MaterialVariant property in the Properties window. In this case, Studio automatically sets its Material property to the base material you chose when creating the material.

Material and MaterialVariant properties set in the Properties window
¹ Unlike on parts, you cannot directly apply custom materials to terrain, although you can set a custom material as a material override to an existing base material for all terrain using that material.

Material Overrides

You can set a custom material as a material override to make its base material serve as a reference to the custom material. When you do so, Studio will use the custom material for both the textures and physical properties of any part or terrain that uses the custom material.

Setting Overrides

To set a custom material as a material override in the Material Manager:

  1. Click the custom material that you want to set as an override.

  2. In the inspector, scroll down to Overrides and enable Set as Override.

    The new override appears as a property of MaterialService in the Properties window.

Terrain Details

By default, applying a custom material to parts or as an override applies that custom material as tiles across each face. For terrain, you can optionally configure TerrainDetail instances to customize the top, side, and bottom of terrain voxels using that custom material.

To customize the faces of terrain using a custom material:

  1. In the palette of the Material Manager, click the custom material.

  2. In the inspector, confirm that its Set as Override toggle is enabled.

  3. In the Terrain Details section, click Create for each face you want to customize.

  4. For each face you enable, expand the arrow to access and edit details such as its name, texture maps, studs per tile, and pattern.

Disabling Overrides

You can disable an entire material override and all base materials that it's currently overriding, or you can disable the override for a specific base material.

  1. In the palette of the Material Manager, click a custom material that's being used as an override.

  2. In the inspector, scroll down to Overrides and disable Set as Override.

Physical Properties

All materials have built-in physical properties such as density, elasticity, and friction. Through the application of custom materials with unique physical properties, you can affect global material behavior for all parts and terrain which use the custom material, such as creating an extremely slippery variant of the Ice material.

When factoring physical properties, the engine prioritizes more granular per-part settings over material behaviors to determine the effective physical properties of a surface:


Custom physical properties of the specific part.

Custom physical properties of the part's custom material.

Custom physical properties of the material override of the part's material.

The default physical properties of the part's material.

To set unique physical properties for any custom material and automatically apply them to all parts and terrain which use the material:

  1. In the palette of the Material Manager, click the custom material.

  2. In the inspector, scroll down to the Physics section and set custom physical properties as detailed in the PhysicalProperties reference.

    Custom physical properties in Material Manager inspector pane

    For any part that uses the custom material and does not have part-specific overrides, the CurrentPhysicalProperties branch in the Properties window reveals that its default physical properties are overridden by the custom material's properties.

    Properties window showing physical properties overridden by those of custom material

Adaptive Materials

When you apply a custom material to a part, the part's Part.MaterialVariant property becomes the name of its MaterialVariant rather than its specific instance. This means that when you reuse the part in the same or a different place, as in a model or package, it's easier for you to adapt different custom materials to adjust the part's look. The adaptive behavior of custom materials has the following effects:

  • If you create collections of custom materials with the same name but different textures, then you can quickly change the style of a place by changing which collection is a child of MaterialService.
  • If you insert a model with parts that use a custom material, then you can modify its look by creating an instance of MaterialVariant in MaterialService and renaming it to the same name as the previous custom material, rather than applying the new material to the parts in the model.

When you reuse custom materials in models and packages, each MaterialVariant instance must be in MaterialService for it to work.

  • If you distribute a model to the Creator Store with a custom material, include the MaterialVariant instance in the model. For more information about distributing models to the Creator Store, see Distributing Assets.
  • If you insert a model from the Creator Store, look for any MaterialVariant instances and copy them to MaterialService. For more information about importing models from the Creator Store, see Creator Store.
  • If you want to use custom materials with packages, put the package in MaterialService. For more information on packages, see Packages.

The Creator Store has a category called Materials for "material packs", models that contain only MaterialVariant, TerrainDetail, Folder, and Model instances. The Materials category is a way to promote and discover custom materials by other creators.

Asset and Property Reference

Base Materials

Shaders generate the look and feel of materials. The base material shaders work differently than the shader which MaterialVariant instances use, so you can't create custom materials that look exactly like base materials, but you can still create custom materials that use their textures. The following tables list the asset IDs for material details such as ColorMap and RoughnessMap.

MaterialColorMapNormalMetalnessRoughness
Asphalt993000304694294498769429450346
Basalt992048205694384122149438412457
Brick992048281394384531529438453413
Cardboard
beta
141086517291410865400214108654299
Carpet
beta
141086625871410866315414108663726
Ceramic Tiles
beta
17429425079174294259151742942610017429426861
Clay Roof Tiles
beta
174295471631742954794417429548240
Cobblestone991971899194384571629438457470
Concrete992048415394665540069466554186
Corroded Metal9920589327943954848494395487499439556441
Cracked Lava992048494394385087909438509046
Diamond Plate10237720195943858322294385833479438583558
Fabric992051769698732804129873282563
Foil9466552117942478619294247862729424786620
Force Field*
Glacier992051873294388129589438851286
Glass943886852175473047857547304892
Granite992055023894388829359438883109
Grass992055186894389557739438955997
Ground992055448294390435589439043765
Ice992055594394673010399467301203
Leafy Grass992055790694390807819439080950
Leather
beta
141086700731410867048614108670748
Limestone992056143794394151919439415495
Marble943943059694394312409439431383
Metal9920574687987329543298733182019873318890
Mud992057847394395098279439510012
Neon*
Pavement992057994394395192819439519532
Pebble992058108294395286449439537267
Plaster
beta
141086712551410867187014108672378
Plastic*
Rock992058747094395384179439545859
Roof Shingles
beta
141086687431410866923614108669567
Rubber
beta
14108673018141086746981410867489414108675142
Salt992059022594395658099439566688
Sand992059168394395770849439577327
Sandstone992059612094395965309439596711
Slate992059978294396125149439612733
Smooth Plastic*
Snow992062028494396320069439632145
Wood992062529094396413769439648605
Wood Planks992062677894396506899439658127
* Material is unique and/or its texture assets are bundled with Studio instead of being accessible as a typical asset ID.

Default Colors

The following table lists the default RGB values for each base material. For information on how to color parts and terrain, see Parts and Environmental Terrain.

MaterialRGB ValueColor
Asphalt[80, 84, 84]
Basalt[75, 74, 74]
Brick[138, 97, 73]
Cardboard
beta
[255, 206, 152]
Carpet
beta
[163, 162, 165]
Ceramic Tiles
beta
[181, 173, 156]
Clay Roof Tiles
beta
[255, 142, 87]
Cobblestone[134, 134, 118]
Concrete[152, 152, 152]
Corroded Metal[104, 140, 173]
Cracked Lava[255, 24, 67]
Diamond Plate[168, 175, 176]
Fabric[194, 193, 168]
Foil[168, 175, 176]
Force Field[163, 162, 165]
Glacier[221, 228, 229]
Glass[138, 167, 168]
Granite[149, 146, 139]
Grass[111, 126, 62]
Ground[140, 130, 104]
Ice[204, 210, 223]
Leafy Grass[106, 134, 64]
Leather
beta
[110, 73, 53]
Limestone[255, 243, 192]
Marble[122, 122, 122]
Metal[168, 175, 176]
Mud[121, 112, 98]
Neon[163, 162, 165]
Pavement[143, 144, 135]
Pebble[122, 122, 118]
Plaster
beta
[204, 142, 105]
Plastic[163, 162, 165]
Rock[99, 100, 102]
Roof Shingles
beta
[66, 66, 66]
Rubber
beta
[32, 32, 32]
Salt[255, 255, 254]
Sand[207, 203, 167]
Sandstone[148, 124, 95]
Slate[88, 89, 86]
Smooth Plastic[163, 162, 165]
Snow[235, 253, 255]
Wood[172, 148, 108]
Wood Planks[172, 148, 108]

Default Physical Properties

The following table lists each material's default physical properties as detailed in the PhysicalProperties reference. For information on customizing physical properties, see Physical Properties.

MaterialDensityElasticityElasticityWeightFrictionFrictionWeight
Asphalt2.360.210.80.3
Basalt2.6910.1510.70.3
Brick1.9220.1510.80.3
Cardboard
beta
0.70.0520.51
Carpet
beta
1.10.2520.41
Ceramic Tiles
beta
2.40.210.511
Clay Roof Tiles
beta
20.210.511
Cobblestone2.6910.1710.51
Concrete2.4030.210.70.3
Corroded Metal7.850.210.71
Cracked Lava2.6910.1510.651
Diamond Plate7.850.2510.351
Fabric0.70.0510.351
Foil2.70.2510.41
Force Field2.4030.210.251
Glacier0.9190.1510.052
Glass2.4030.210.251
Granite2.6910.210.41
Grass0.90.11.50.41
Ground0.90.110.451
Ice0.9190.1510.023
Leafy Grass0.90.120.42
Leather
beta
0.860.2510.351
Limestone2.6910.1510.51
Marble2.5630.1710.21
Metal7.850.2510.41
Mud0.90.0740.33
Neon0.70.210.31
Pavement2.6910.1710.50.3
Pebble2.4030.171.50.41
Plaster
beta
0.750.210.60.3
Plastic0.70.510.31
Rock2.6910.1710.51
Roof Shingles
beta
2.360.210.80.3
Rubber
beta
1.30.9521.53
Salt2.1650.0510.51
Sand1.6020.052.50.55
Sandstone2.6910.1510.55
Smooth Plastic0.70.510.21
Slate2.6910.210.41
Snow0.90.0340.33
Wood0.350.210.481
Wood Planks0.350.210.481