Computation performance issues describe a broad category of problems with the common symptom of increasing the amount of time the server or client needs to spend computing key tasks. This guide covers common pitfalls that you can identify during and after the creation process and the solutions to them.

Roblox's engine performs its computational tasks on a frame by frame basis. Whether it be a frame being drawn on the client or a frame on the server (commonly known as a heartbeat). If these tasks take too long, then fewer frames can be processed per second and the performance of your experience will be degraded. A key symptom of this is a reduced frame rate or heartbeat.

Diagnosing Issues

You can use the following, general steps to diagnose both server and client computation performance issues.


The server heartbeat (frame rate) is capped at 60fps for all experiences, so values below that might indicate a performance issue. To check server heartbeat:

  • With the Developer Console - In the Server Jobs tab, find the Steps Per Sec value, which represents the heartbeat of your experience.

  • With the server MicroProfiler - Look at the length of each frame to see if some are taking longer than 16.6ms (1 / 60).

    The MicroProfiler is particularly useful for identifying 'spikes' in performance, where some frames take significantly than others to process.

  • With the Performance Dashboard - You can view heartbeat values for production experiences.

Another symptom of degraded server heartbeat is increased latency (commonly known as ping). The longer the server takes to finish computing its tasks each frame, the longer it takes to process network data sent and received from clients. To check average ping for all players connected to a server:


The maximum device frame rate is capped at 60fps for all devices. However, you should expect device frame rate to differ. In general, you should identify the minimum target device type that you want your experience to run smoothly on and evaluate the frame rate based on that device.

On high end devices, expect 60fps when the Roblox app is set to the max graphics setting. For example, on PC, when the window is in focus, if the frame rate is below 60fps, your experience likely to have computation issues that will be much more evident on lower end devices. On lower end devices, expect 30fps with graphics set to the automatic setting.

To check the frame rate of your experience:

  • On the client, press ShiftF5.
  • In Studio settings, under the View Tab, select Stats > Summary to enable debug stats.
  • With the MicroProfiler, on which the graph at the top shows current, average, and max frame times for the past few seconds, you can check to see if the frame takes longer than 16.6ms (1 / 60).
  • With the Performance Dashboard, you can view the frame rate for different performance percentiles.

Common Problems

The following sections describe problems and best practices for common categories of computation related performance issues.


Expensive operations in Lua code take longer to process, and thus can impact frame rate. Unless it is being executed in parallel, Lua code runs synchronously and blocks the main thread until it encounters a function that yields the thread.

Common Problems

Overuse of the following components in your scripts causes the computation to be expensive.

  • Intensive operations on table structures - Complex operations such as serialization, deserialization, and deep cloning incur a high performance cost, especially on large table structures. This is particularly true if these operations are recursive or involve iterating over very large data structures.
  • High frequency events - Tying expensive operations to frame-based events of RunService without limiting the frequency, means these operations will be repeated every frame which often results in an unnecessary increase in computation time. These events include:

How to Mitigate

  • Invoke code on RunService events sparingly, limiting usage to cases where high frequency invocation is essential (for example, updating the camera). You can execute most other code in other events or less frequently in a loop.
  • Break up large or expensive tasks using task.wait() to spread the work across multiple frames.
  • Identify and optimize unnecessarily expensive operations and use multithreading for computationally expensive tasks that don't need to access the data model.

Associated MicroProfiler Scopes

ScopeAssociated Computation
RunService.PreRenderCode executing on the PreRender event
RunService.PreSimulationCode executing on the Stepped event
RunService.PostSimulationCode executing on Heartbeat event
RunService.HeartbeatCode executing on Heartbeat event

For more information on debugging scripts using the MicroProfiler, see the debug library, which includes functions for tagging specific code and further increasing specificity, such as debug.profilebegin and debug.profileend. Many Roblox API methods called by scripts also have their own associated MicroProfiler tags that can provide useful signals.


Excessive physics simulation can be a key cause of increased computation time per frame on both the server and the client.

Common Problems

  • Excessive physics time step frequency - By default, stepping behavior is in adaptive mode, where physics steps at either 60hz, 120hz, or 240hz, depending on the complexity of the physics mechanism.
    • A fixed mode with improved accuracy of physics is also available, which forces all physics assemblies to step at 240hz or 4 times per frame. This results in significantly more computation each frame.
  • Excessive number of complexity of simulated objects - The more 3D assemblies that are simulated, the longer physics computations take each frame. Often, experiences will have objects being simulated that do not need to be or will have mechanisms that have more constraints and joints than they need.
  • Overly precise collision detection - Mesh parts have a collision fidelity property for detecting collision, which offers a variety of modes with different levels of performance impact. Precise collision detection mode for mesh parts has the most expensive performance cost and takes the engine longer to compute.

How to Mitigate

You can carry out the following tasks to help mitigate computation issues:

  • Anchor parts that don't require simulation - Anchor all parts that don't need to be driven by physics, such as for static NPCs.

  • Use adaptive physics stepping - Adaptive stepping dynamically adjusts the rate of physics calculations for physics mechanisms, allowing physics updates to be made less frequently in some cases.

  • Reduce mechanism complexity

    • Where possible, minimize the number of physics constraints or joints in an assembly.
    • Reduce the amount of self-collision within a mechanism, such as by applying limits or no-collision constraints to ragdoll limbs to prevent them from colliding with each other.
  • Reduce the usage of precise collision fidelity for meshes as much as possible:

    • For small or non-interactable objects that users rarely notice the difference, use box fidelity.

    • For small-medium size objects, use box or hull fidelities, depending on the shape.

    • For large and very complex objects, build out custom collisions using invisible parts when possible.

    • For objects that don't require collisions, disable collisions and use box or hull fidelity, since the collision geometry is still stored in memory.

    • You can render collision geometry for debug purposes in Studio using File > Studio Settings > Studio > Visualization > Show Decomposition Geometry

      Alternatively, you can apply the CollisionFidelity=Precise filter to the Explorer, which shows a count of all mesh parts with the precise fidelity and allows you to easily select them.

    • For an in-depth walkthrough on how to choose a collision fidelity option that balances your precision and performance requirements, see Set Physics and Rendering Parameters.

MicroProfiler Timing Scopes Associated

ScopeAssociated Computation
physicsSteppedOverall physics computation
worldStepDiscrete physics steps taken each frame


Humanoid is a class that provides a wide range of functionalities to player and non player characters (NPCs). Although powerful, a Humanoid comes with a significant computation cost.

Common Problems

  • Leaving all HumanoidStateTypes enabled on NPCs - There is a performance cost to leaving certain HumanoidStateTypes enabled and any that are not needed for your NPCs should be disabled. For example, unless your NPC is going to be climbing ladders, it's safe to disable the Climbing state.
  • Instantiating, modifying, and respawning models with Humanoids frequently
    • This can be intensive for the engine to process. Particularly if these Humanoid Models use Layered clothing. This also can be particularly problematic in experiences where avatars respawn often.
    • In the MicroProfiler, lengthy updateInvalidatedFastClusters tags (over 4ms) are often a signal that avatar instantiation / modification is triggering excessive invalidations.
  • Using Humanoids in cases where they are not required - Static NPCs that do not move, generally have no need for the Humanoid class .
  • Playing animations on a large number of NPCs from the server - NPC animations that run on the server need to be simulated on the server and replicated to the client. This can be unnecessary overhead.

How to Mitigate

  • Play NPC animations on the client - In experiences with a large number of NPCs, consider creating the Animator on the client and running the animations locally. This reduces the load on the server and the need for unnecessary replication. It also makes additional optimizations possible (such as only playing animations for NPCs who are near to the character)
  • Use performance-friendly alternatives to Humanoids: NPC models don't necessarily need to contain a humanoid object.
    • For static NPCs, use a simple AnimationController, because they don't need to move around but just need to play animations.
    • For moving NPCs, consider implementing your own movement controller and using an AnimationController for animations, depending on the complexity of your NPCs.
  • Disable unused humanoid states - Use Humanoid:SetStateEnabled() to only enable necessary states for each humanoid.
  • Pool NPC models with frequent respawning - Instead of destroying an NPC completely, send the NPC to a pool of inactive NPCs. This way, when a new NPC is required to respawn, simply reactivate one of the NPCs from the pool. This process is called pooling, which minimizes the amount of times characters need to be instantiated.
  • Only spawn NPCs when users are nearby - Don't spawn NPCs when users aren't in range and cull them out when users leave their range.
  • Avoid making changes to the avatar hierarchy after it is instantiated - Certain modifications to an avatar hierarchy have significant performance implications. Certain optimizations are available:
    • For custom procedural animations, don't update the JointInstance.C0 and JointInstance.C1 properties. Instead, update the Motor6D.Transform property.
    • If you need to attach any BasePart objects to the avatar. Do so outside of the hierarchy of the avatar Model.

MicroProfiler Timing Scopes

ScopeAssociated Computation
stepHumanoidHumanoid control and physics
stepAnimationHumanoid and animator animation
updateInvalidatedFastClustersAssociated with instantiating or modifying an avatar


A significant portion of the time the client spends each frame is on rendering the scene in the current frame. The server doesn't do any rendering, so this section is exclusive to the client.

Draw Calls

A draw call is a set of instructions from the engine to the GPU to render something. Draw calls have significant overhead, and generally the fewer draw calls a frame the engine makes the less computational time is spent rendering a frame.

You can see how many draw calls are currently occurring with the Render Stats → Timing item in Studio. You can view Render Stats in the client by pressing ShiftF2.

The more objects that need to be drawn in your scene in a given frame, the more draw calls are made to the GPU. However, the Roblox engine utilizes a process called instancing to collapse identical meshes with the same texture characteristics into a single draw call. Specifically, multiple meshes with the same MeshId are handled in a single draw call when:

Common Problems

  • Excessive object density - If a large number of objects are concentrated with a high density, then rendering this area of the scene will require more draw calls. If you are finding your frame rate drops when looking at a certain part of the map, this can be a good signal that object density in this area is too high.
  • Missed Instancing Opportunities - Often, a scene will include the same mesh duplicated a number of times, but each copy of the mesh has different mesh or texture asset IDs. This prevents instancing and can lead to unnecessary draw calls.
    • A common cause of this problem is when an entire scene is imported at once, rather than individual assets being imported into Roblox and then duplicated post-import to assemble the scene.
  • Excessive object complexity - Although not as important as the number of draw calls, the number of triangles in a scene does influence how long a frame takes to render. Scenes with a very large number of very complex meshes are a common problem, as are scenes with the MeshPart.RenderFidelity property set to Precise on too many meshes.
  • Excessive shadow casting - Handling shadows is an expensive process, and maps that contain a high number & density of light objects that cast shadows or a high number & density of small parts influenced by shadows are likely to have performance issues.

How to Mitigate

  • Instancing identical meshes and reducing the amount of unique meshes - If you ensure all identical meshes to have the same underlying asset IDs, the engine can recognize and render them in a single draw call. Make sure to only upload each mesh in a map once and duplicate them in Studio for reuse rather than importing large maps as a whole, which might cause identical meshes to have separate content IDs and be recognized as unique assets by the engine. Packages are a helpful mechanism for object reuse.
  • Culling - Culling describes the process of eliminating draw calls for objects that don't factor into the final rendered frame. By default, the engine skips draw calls for objects outside the camera's field of view (Frustum culling), but doesn't skip draw calls for objects occluded from view by other objects (Occlusion culling). If your scene has a large number of draw calls, consider implementing your own additional culling at runtime dynamically for every frame, such as applying the following common strategies:
    • Hide MeshPart and BasePart that are far away from the camera or setting.
    • For indoor environments, implement a room or portal system that hides objects not currently occupied by any users.
  • Reducing render fidelity - Set render fidelity to Automatic or Performance. This will allow meshes to fall back to less complex alternatives, which can reduce the number of polygons that need to be drawn.
  • Disabling shadow casting on appropriate parts and light objects - The complexity of the shadows in a scene can be reduced by selectively disabling shadow casting properties on light objects and parts. This can be done at edit time or dynamically at runtime. Some examples are:
    • Use the BasePart.CastShadow property to disable shadow casting on small parts where shadows are unlikely to be visible. This can be particularly effective when only applied to parts that are far away from the user's camera.
    • Disable shadows on moving objects when possible.
    • Disable Light.Shadows on light instances where the object does not need to cast shadows.
    • Limit the range and angle of light instances.
    • Use fewer light instances.

MicroProfiler Timing Scopes

ScopeAssociated Computation
Prepare and PerformOverall rendering
Perform/Scene/computeLightingPerformLight grid and shadow updates
Update LightGridVoxel light grid updates
ShadowsShadow mapping
Perform/Scene/UpdateViewPreparation for rendering and particle updates
Perform/Scene/RenderViewRendering and post processing

Networking and Replication

Networking & Replication describes the process by which data is sent between the server and connected clients. Information is sent between the client and server every frame, but the more information that is sent the more computation time is sent sending this data and processing received data.

Common Problems

  • Excessive remote traffic - Sending a large amount of data through RemoteEvent or RemoteFunction objects or invoking them very frequently can lead to a large amount of CPU time being spent processing incoming packets each frame. Common mistakes include:

    • Replicating data every frame that does not need to be replicated.
    • Replicating data on user input without any mechanism to throttle it.
    • Dispatching more data than is required. For example, sending the player's entire inventory when they purchase an item rather than just details of the item purchased.
  • Creation or removal of complex instance trees - When a change is made to the data model on the server, it is replicated to connected clients. This means creating and destroying large instance hierarchies like maps at runtime can be very network intensive.

    A common culprit here is the complex animation data saved by Animation Editor plugins in rigs. If these aren't removed before the game is published, and the animated model is cloned regularly a large amount of data will be replicated unnecessary.

  • Server side TweenService - If TweenService is used to tween an object server side, the tweened property will be replicated to each client every frame. Not only will this result in the tween being jittery as clients' latency fluctuates but a lot of network traffic will be dispatched unnecessarily.

How to Mitigate

You can employ the following tactics to reduce unnecessary replication:

  • Avoid sending large amounts of data at once through remote events. Instead, only send necessary data at a lower frequency. For example, for a character's state, only replicate once when it changes rather than every frame.
  • Chunk up complex instance trees like maps and load them in pieces to distribute the work replicating these across multiple frames.
  • Clean up animation metadata, especially the animation directory of rigs, after importing.
  • Limit unnecessary instance replication, especially in cases where the server doesn't need to have knowledge of the instances being created. This includes:
    • Visual effects such as an explosion or a magic spell blast. The server only needs to know the location to determine the outcome, while the clients can create visuals locally.
    • First person item view models.
    • Tween objects on the client rather than the server.

MicroProfiler Timing Scopes

ScopeAssociated Computation
ProcessPacketsProcessing for incoming network packets, such as event invocations and property changes
Allocate Bandwidth and Run SendersOutgoing events relevant on servers