A stack is a linear data structure with a collection of items that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. The top of the stack is the item most recently added to the stack, and the bottom of the stack is the item that was least recently added.

You can think of the stack data structure as a stack of dinner plates: you start with one, and then you put another above it. When you take plates from the stack, the first one you remove from the stack is the last one you put on the top.

Stacks have two main operations: push for adding an element to the top of the stack and pop for removing the element from the top of the stack. A Stack can either have a fixed size or be dynamically resized. Stacks are helpful for design usage such as backtracking algorithms.

Implementing Stacks

Though Luau doesn't have stacks as a built-in data structure, you can use tables to implement stacks. The following code sample shows how to create a stack, push an object to a stack, and pop an object from the stack. To use this implementation for your experience, you should save it as a ModuleScript and store it in ReplicatedStorage, so your stack is accessible for both client and server.

local Stack = {}
Stack.__index = Stack
local self = setmetatable({}, Stack)
self._stack = {}
return self
-- Check if the stack is empty
function Stack:IsEmpty()
return #self._stack == 0
-- Put a new value onto the stack
function Stack:Push(value)
self._stack[#self._stack+1] = value
-- Take a value off the stack
function Stack:Pop()
if self:IsEmpty() then
return nil
local value = self._stack[#self._stack]
self._stack[#self._stack] = nil
return value
return Stack

The following code sample is a usage example as a Script under Workspace. You can modify the code, type, and storage location to fit your own usage, as long as you have the previous implementation code sample properly stored.

Stack Usage Example

local ReplicatedStorage = game:GetService("ReplicatedStorage")
local Stack = require(ReplicatedStorage:WaitForChild("Stack"))
local s =
-- Change the stack Resulting stack Output
s:Push(1) -- {1}
s:Push(5) -- {1, 5}
s:Push(10) -- {1, 5, 10}
print(s:Pop()) -- {1, 5} 10
print(s:Pop()) -- {1} 5
s:Push(20) -- {1, 20}
print(s:Pop()) -- {1} 20
print(s:Pop()) -- {} 1

If you run the previous code sample without changing anything, the expected output is:

Example Output